PD Functional Genomics | 2020
Defining the Cellular and Molecular Determinants of Variable Genetic Penetrance in Parkinson’s Disease
Study Rationale: Why do some people develop Parkinson’s disease (PD) while others do not? Although many genetic risk factors have been identified, researchers still cannot confidently answer this question, or explain how certain cells in the brain go from being healthy early in life to diseased in old age. Clearly, numerous complex factors are involved, and a systematic investigation of the key cellular and molecular players is necessary to understand and effectively treat this disease.
Hypothesis: Team Studer hypothesizes that single genetic factors are insufficient to cause PD — rather, that it is triggered by a combination of genetics, age-related factors, and their effects in different brain cells.
Study Design: Here, Team Studer proposes to dissect the genetic, age-related, and cell-type-specific factors that lead to PD using a collection of genetically diverse stem cells derived from patients. Using advanced methods pioneered by the team, they will convert these stem cells into the different types of brain cells implicated in PD — neurons, microglia, and astrocytes — allowing the team to investigate how genetic risk factors, the aging process, and these different cell types interact to trigger disease. Team Studer will assess how various combinations of these factors disrupt the function of brain cells using detailed molecular studies, microscopy, genetic manipulations, and biochemical measurements — building a computational network model of the factors that cause PD.
Impact on Diagnosis/Treatment of Parkinson’s Disease: This richer, fully human cell model of PD will provide an entirely new level of understanding of how the interplay between genetics, different brain cells, and aging shapes individual disease risk, enabling early diagnosis, prediction of therapeutic targets that could halt or reverse the disease, and stratification of patients into therapeutically meaningful subgroups.
The project will not only help address the question of variable penetrance — why some individuals with genetic risk factors develop Parkinson’s disease while others do not — but may also lead to improved tools for early diagnosis, prediction of effective therapeutic targets, and stratification of patients into therapeutically meaningful subgroups. View Team Outcomes.
Here is an overview of how this team’s article findings have contributed to the PD field as of November 2023. There are two different categorizations of these contributions – one by impact to the PD community and a second by scientific theme.
Below is an example of a research output from the team that contributes to the ASAP mission of accelerating discoveries for PD.
The Parkinson’s disease protein alpha-synuclein is a modulator of Processing-bodies and mRNA stability
The characteristic pathology of Parkinson’s disease and related disorders (dementia with Lewy bodies and multiple system atrophy) is the aggregation of a protein in brain neurons and glial cells called alpha-synuclein. Alpha-synuclein, a protein traditionally known to be involved with transport structures in the cell known as “vesicles”, is now found to have a double life. The very same part of the protein that interacts with vesicles also binds to structures known as a “P-body”, machinery in the cell that regulates the expression of genes through mRNAs. The authors’ results indicate that when alpha-synuclein abnormally accumulates, the physiologic structure and function of the P-body is lost, a process that results indicate could contribute towards a higher risk for Parkinson’s disease
Other Team Activities
- Working Groups:
- Senescence – Lorenz Studer and Isabelle de Luzy (Co-Chairs)
- iPSC – Gist Croft (Co-Chair)
In the News
- Consortium including NYSCF receives grant award to study Parkinson’s disease risk factors (The New York Stem Cell Foundation, September 18, 2020)
- Taking aim at Parkinson’s disease: A conversation with Developmental Biologist Lorenzo Studer (Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center, October 9, 2020)